Saturday, June 13, 2009
Middle English Word List
I promised this a while ago.
Then I forgot about it.
The following list of words have mostly fallen out of use, but are still cool. It is useful in illustrating just how diverse a language Middle English was. Anyway, here it is:
Abatyd: demolished or destroyed. From Old French.
Abide: delay, ward, stay fixed, wait, defend. From Old English.
Ac: but, and; furthermore. Old English.
Acces: attack, assail, assault. Old French.
Adunest: attack with din; a noisy assault, as in battle. Old English.
Affraye: attack. As in to enter "the fray." Old English.
Agon: pass away; gone. Old English.
Alder-grattyst: greatest of all, supreme; all powerful. Old English.
Alder-next: the closest of all, the very nearest; the heir apparent. Old English.
Armes: deeds of arms. Old French.
Ascryed: screamed at, shouted at. Old Norse.
Athel: nobleman. Old English.
At-hold: restrain; lay hands upon; forcibly prevent. Old English.
Auntur / awenture / aventure / auntre : adventure; fortune; risk; a potentially dangerous undertaking.
Bare: without armour; open. Old English. Bare fencing?
Baret: fighting. Old French.
Beme: Tree. Old English.
Bigog: "by God." Old English.
Bisne: poor-sighted. Old English.
Ble / blo: colour; bright; complexion. Old English.
Bo: as well. Old English.
Boydekyn: dagger. Unknown, possibly Old Welsh.
Bokeler: buckler. Old French.
Bryniges: coats of mail. Old Norse.
Brode: wide-eyed; open-eyed; wild; mad. Old English.
Burdez: women. Old English.
Cayser: Emperor. Latin.
Caytif: wretch; worthless person. Old French caitif.
Camelyn: finest material; silk. Unknown.
Camuse: pug-nosed. Old French.
Carle: man; warrior; fellow. Old Norse.
Carlemen: warriors. Old Norse.
Castel-weorces: building of castles. Anglo-Norman + Old English.
Cautellis / kautelles: spells (magic). Old French.
Chace: drive, drive back. Old French.
Chauntre: singing. Old French.
Childer: children. Old English.
Clivre: claw. Old English.
Cnokez: strike. Old English.
Coyfe: cap. Old French.
Cokeres: leggings, chausses. Old English.
Comynlych: usually, in general. "Commonly." Old French.
Cos: kiss. Old English.
Craft: doings; skill; might; ability. Old English.
Crafty / craefig: cunning; skilled; wise; learned; powerful. Old English.
Culle: kill. Old English.
Daubynge: plastering. Old French.
Delvare: digger. Old English.
Deovel: devil. Old English.
Derfe: Mighty; strong; powerful. Old Norse.
Derfly: boldly. Old Norse.
Dynt / dunt: stroke; powerful blow. Old English.
Dysors: minstrels. Old French.
Dyvers: various; manifold. Old French.
Dom / doome: judgement; law; doom. Old English.
Domesman: judge. Old English. "Doomsman."
Douth: military company. From root for "doughty." Old English.
Draf: rubbish, refuse; chaff. Old English.
Drapen: killed. Old English.
Fust: fist; hand. Old English.
Glowande: shining; glowing. Old English.
Gome: man; knight; person. Old English.
Grennin: gnashing teeth. Old English.
Grot: small detail. Old English.
Grubber: digger. Old English. Root of "grubby."
Grurefule: terrible. Old English.
Ichave: "I have." Old English.
Hali: holy. Old English.
Heredmen: courtiers. Old English. "Hired-men."
Herken: harken, listen. Old English.
Himward: towards him. O.E.
Hyre: wages; income. O.E.
Ho-so: whoever. From O.E. hwa + swa.
Hote: passionately. O.E.
Hus: house; monastery. O.E.
Ic: I. O.E.
Ich: same. O.E.
Idel: vain. O.E.
Iwivet: married. O.E. From O.E. wifian, "wif(v)ed," with wife.
Kaisere: emperor. Latin.
Kealche-cuppe: drunkard. O.E.
Kene: brave; sharp. O.E.
Keorvinde: cutting; sharp. O.E.
Kepe: control. O.E.
Kynde: nature; kindred; species; kind; one's folk. English-kind.
Layth: hateful. O.E.
Lich: corpse. O.E.
Lyhte: bright; light. O.E.
Macers: mace-bearers, warriors armed with maces. Old French maissier.
Maei: male kinsman. O.E.
May: girl. Old English.
Mayn: great; strong; powerful. O.E. "Main."
Mayster: master; knight. O.E. maegester / O.F. maistre.
Malskred: bewildered. From O.E. malscrung "enchantment."
Meast: greatest. O.E.
Mordre: murder. From O.E. morþor.
Nist: knew not. O.E.
Noþerward: downwards. O.E.
Onoh: enough. O.E.
Oo: all the time, constantly. O.E.
Ord: point. O.E. Cognate of German ort / ortt.
Oþerwhile: at another time. O.E.
Oversithon: too often. O.E.
Panne: top of the skull, brain-pan. O.E.
Pinin: torture. O.E.
Plate: plate armour. Old French.
Popper: slang for dagger. from Middle English poppen, to "strike."
Quile: time; an occasion. O.E.
Rede: counsel; advice; action. O.E.
Renke / rynk: warrior, knight; man. From Old English rinc "fighter," and badurinc "battle fighter / warrior;" a cognate of German ring, from which ringen is derived. O.E.
Schitworde: foul language. "Shit-words." O.E.
Schoter: archer. O.E. "Shooter."
Seld: shield. O.E.
Slode: fell; to fell or slay. O.E.
Soþe: truth. O.E. "Sooth."
Sse: she. O.E.
Sted: horse, steed. O.E.
Stel-gere: armour, harness; weapons. From O.E. stele, "steel" + Old Norse gervi, "gear." "Steel-gear."
Swart: black. O.E.
Sweord: sword. O.E.
Swike: traitor. O.E.
Swynes-hed: swine's head; sluggish or stupid person. From O.E. swin, "swine" + heafod, "head."
Swogh: soft noise. O.E.
Þitherward: towards there. O.E.
Þilke: that one; the same one; the same ones. O.E.
Uncouþe: strange; foriegn; improper; unknown. O.E.
Vaire: beautiful. O.E.
Vlesch: flesh. O.E.
Wai: alas! Old Norse.
Weder: weather. O.E.
Werre: war. Anglo-Norman.
Wight / wyht: person, entity, creature; demon. O.E.
Wycked: wicked; vicious. From O.E. wicca, "wizard."
Wotte: to know. O.E.
Wraeken: to avenge. O.E.
Wrakeful: vengeful. O.E.